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...night when you’ll get drunk with MILK PDF Print

Nigth of Museums 2014


  • Veterinary medicine and university history – permanent exhibition

Lectures and guided tours

18:00 - 18:30 Veterinary Medicine and university history Guided tour – Dr. Kótai István
Veterinary history spiced with museum and anecdotes.
18:45 - 19:00 Opening ceremony
19:00 - 19:30 Facts and misbelieves about milk – Dr. Fekete Sándor György
The lecture will present the composition and physiological impact of the milk from different animal species and humans treated with a comparative-evolutionary point of view. The value of milk as food/feed will be presented, analyzing both its positive and negative impacts. Besides the nutritive quality index, neotenia, lactose intolerance, the role of milk and dairy products in fighting cancer, or provoking allergies. The substitution of the milk of different animal species (orphanss !) and artificial milk will also be dealt with.
19:30 - 20:00 Milk yielding domestic animals – Dr. Gáspárdy András
Domestic animals providing milk for human consumption from all over the world will be presented, offering an example of the diverse efforts for the satisfaction of human needs. The development of single purpose dairy type animals will be presented as well as their different breeds, their live’s career, and farming. The control of production, the estimation of of breeding value for valuable traits, the system of selection, methods of breeding and mating will also be mentioned in brief. Visions of the future of milk production will close the presentation.
20:00 - 20:30 From the milking pail to the cheese platter. – dr. Cenkvári Éva, Dr. Bersényi András, Dr. Hullár István
Special features of ruminants’ digestion and their main feedstuffs will be presented briefly. The effects of feeding on milk composition will also be discussed.
20:30 - 21:00 Hormones and milk – Dr. Cseh Sándor
A short film about milking on a cow farm will be presented and it will be shown how cows are prepared for milk production.
21:00 - 21:30 All along the ”milky ways” – adventures in the lobules – Dr. Kótai István
The presentation will answer questions like: how the mammary gland develops? What kinds of lobules are there and how are they structured? Where does the milk come from? An exciting tour will be made in the milk ducts and we will learn what regulates milk production.
21:30 - 22:00 Safe consumption of milk and milk products – Dr. Laczay Péter
The presentation starts with a brief survey of the health impacts of microorganisms and chemicals which may contaminate raw milk, and the safety aspects of drinking raw and heat-treated milk. Risks associated with the consumption of different milk products (such as sour milk and cream products – yoghurt, kefir, cream), butters, cheese will be considered. Then, consumers may get acquainted with basic information and tasks related to the purchase and proper storage of milk and milk products at home.
22:00 - 22:30 The life of camels at the World’s first modern camel dairy farm in Dubai. – Dr. Nagy Péter
Slide show, video and milk tasting
23:00 - 24:00 Veterinary Medicine and university history Veterinary history spiced with museum and anecdotes. Guided tour - Dr. Kótai István


16:00 - 24:00 Creative activities for children:
Milk and honey – Drawing contest for children Children may draw anything related to milk or milk products if they like. Pictures will be on show during the night and later on the museum's homepage. The artists of the three best pictures will receive a book award by post.
(Négyesi Barbara, Egri Krisztina, Váradi Adél, Karancsi Zita)
16:00 - 21:00 Microworld: Wonders under the microscope
16:00 - 24:00 Pet a pet! (child program))
    - It is good to pet a pet - let it be a miniature goat or an animal living without milk
18:00 - 22:00 Milk analysis - Mastitest, Kovács Péter
18:00 - 22:00 Milk analysis - Somatic cell count, milk composition, etc. Markus Gabriella (Markus Tejlabor Kft.)
18:00 - 22:00 News from the dairy experimental institute (cultures, kefir, yogurt, cheese) Kocsis Róbert (Magyar Tejgazdasági Kísérleti Intézet)
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The Collection of Veterinary History presents a golden and a bitter period of veterinary history. 

By the end of the 19th century veterinarians managed eradicate rinderpest from Hungary, thus gained high prestige in society. In 1881 the veterinary school moved into a new campus, and participated at the 1000-years’ anniversary of Hungary in 1896 as well as the Paris World Exhibition in 1900 with great success. In Paris the pavilion of agriculture was organized by the rector of the Hungarian Royal Veterinary College. The achievements of the animal health system and veterinarians were presented by the teachers of the veterinary college several of whom won gold or silver medals. 

However, the glamour of Paris was soon overshadowed by the dark years and suffering of World War One. Soldiers and the horses serving them shared similar fate. The work of veterinarians at the front will be presented as well as the hardships horses had to go through, and the consequences of the war in terms of the loss of animals and the spread of infectious diseases. 

Not only images and documents will be presented, but also the huge bones of horses can be touched, some tools for the treatment of horses can be handled such as the mouth speculum, the tooth rasp, and the tools for tooth extraction, pincers, and medical horse shoes. Drawing, colouring and puzzles will be available for the younger generation while those, who want to devote more time to the two stories, may check their knowledge with tests.

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Malacological exhibition PDF Print

All of us have seen toddlers picking up snail houses and staring at them with round eyes. All of us have been diving in order to bring up the stone covered by mussels which had just cut his feet. All of us have smaller or larger snail houses at home collected on the shore of warm seas or bought from pushing local vendors. Sometimes we just press them against our ear to listen to the „murmur of the sea”.

However, there are much less people who know what lives in these shells behind the fantastic forms beside the murmur of exotic waves. Why are they so diverse? How do the „inhabitants” look like, and above all how do they live? How do they move, feed, and breed? Are they vulnerable or are they dangerous for other animals?

Our exhibition, which is not less beautiful than the richest collections of jewelry, offers a systematic presentation of molluscs which inhabit – often invisibly – our Earth from the deep oceans to the tree-stratum of tropical jungles, and fulfill their less known but not less important role in the ecosystem just like all the other creatures.

Those who would only like to enjoy the beauty of the collection may come to have a look at the unbelievable variety of colours, forms, textures. Those whose interest is captured by the exhibition may read the guide, a booklet presenting the main characteristics of each systematic group such as the interesting etimology of its scientific name, its habitat, or the sometimes bizarre secrets of its life, feeding and reproduction.

This is an exhibition wholeheartedly offered for the young and the old, for professionals as well as the general public.

The exhibition was designed and
descriptions were written by
Gábor Majoros, DVM, PhD

Material gathering and contributions to the text by
Alexandra Juhász
student of the veterinary programme

The Collection of Veterinary History and the designer of the exhibition express
their gratitude to
László Németh
for his generousity
lending the material of the exhibition.

The exhibition can be visited every Wednesday afternoon from 1 p. m. to 4 p. m.
or at any time upon request until the end of 2013.

Last Updated on Wednesday, April 30 2014 10:05
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Masters and students PDF Print

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The institutional training of veterinarians began 250 years ago in Lyon, France. Similarly to apprentices who went on a long journey before preparing their masterpieces, veterinary candidates travelled to places where there has already been veterinary training, and started their own course upon returning home with knowledge and skills in veterinary medicine.

The Faculty of Veterinary Science, Szent Istvan University celebrates the 225th anniversary of its foundation in the academic year 2011/2012. The founder Alexander Tolnay, a student of medicine, had been sent to Vienna and some European countries in order to acquire veterinary knowledge, gain experiences and prepare for his new role. He studied at professor Johann Gottlieb Wolstein’s (1738–1820) institute and translated some of his works into Hungarian. He himself also wrote several books both for students and farmers. After returning home in 1787, he started Hungarian veterinary training at the Medical Faculty of the University of Pest (today Budapest).

Teachers appointed for a new role such as founding a department, introducing the teaching of a special field were sent later as well for one- or two-year study tours to the most outstanding European institutions of veterinary science so that they could bring home and use the results of research being abreast of the times in their own educational and research work.

Some of the Wolstein translations by Tolnay

The circulation of knowledge has always characterized our veterinary school. The official language of education was German until 1860 but lectures were held in Hungarian and in different periods even in Slovakian. It is known from former records that our faculty always welcomed foreign students. Persian, Turkish, Greek, Vietnamese, African students have always been found in student records. They graced the everyday life of the university with their presence. Some of them returned to earn an academic degree, to teach, to take part in joint research projects, others got to high ranking positions in their countries such as a professor or a minister.

From the early 1990s there are also German and English study programmes at our faculty. Their popularity has been increasing and in the past two decades more than 490 students got their diplomas which are recognized by any member state of the European Union. Our professors made several bilingual, English and German lecture notes, textbooks and multimedia materials for students.

Photo: János Perényi DVM

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On the international stage PDF Print

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The developments started by our directors Vilmos Zlamál, Alajos Szabó, Béla Tormay and Ferenc Varga were fully blown by the end of the 19th century under the rectorship of Ferenc Hutÿra and the time has come for the introduction of solid legal regulations (the law VII. of 1888) and the establishment of a well-managed veterinary service. In 1881 the veterinary school moved into its new campus designed by Imre Stiendl, and the modern institution was ready for being presented on the international stage.
There were three occasions for this within ten years:
-    at the millennary exhibition (celebrating 1000 years of Hungary) in 1896,
-    at the Paris World’s Fair in 1900, then
-    at the 8th International Veterinary Congress held in Budapest in 1905.
Why was it important to prove how well-organised and developed the Hungarian veterinary service was?
Hutÿra gives the following answer:
„Thus countries which breed great numbers of animals for trading, even if the commercial and political environment is favourable, have to improve the health status of their livestock permanently to avoid precautions restricting their exports on behalf of importing countries.
This had in fact proved to be the most powerful incentive for the organisation and development of veterinary control in the exporting countries. As a matter of fact this was also the case in Hungary, this is why our control system developed to its present high level.”
1 So far as veterinary training is concerned he states that it was also the demands of international animal trade that motivated its development to scientific level, the increase of the criteria for enrollment, the lengthening of courses, and the building of modern, well-equipped buildings.

1Hutyra Ferenc: Állategészségügy. In: Az 1896. évi ezredéves kiállítás eredménye…VI. kötet. Budapest, Pesti Könyvnyomda, 1887.


Exposition Universelle
Paris World’s Fair, 1900


Theme:     Evaluation of a Century
Open:       4 April 1900 - –                         12 November
Exhibitors: 18 groups, 121 categories, 83.047 exhibitors from 44 countries and 20 French colonies
Cost:        119.225.707 Franc
Income:    126.318.168 Franc
Jury:         2.335 members
Awards:     3.156 Grand Prix, 45.905 awards in all

The Hungarian pavillion by the river a Szajna-partján


The international jury of which Béla Tormay, former director of our veterinary school, a department counillor, was also a member awarded both the exhibition of the Hungarian veterinary service and that of the veterinary college with Grand Prix. Ferenc Hutÿra got a gold meadl for the conceptual and outstanding organisation of the exhibitions and the books acompanying them. Further seven professors of our school won the gold or silver medal of contributors.

Aranyérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás, 1900Aranyérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás, 1900

Gold medalists
Preparates by István Rátz * The Hungarian Royal State Institute of Bacteriology * Equipment developed by Leó Liebermann * Horse bronchiae preparation by Béla Nádaskay

EzüstéremEzüstérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás 1900

Silver medalists
Histology slides, vacuum dryer, ventillator by Ferenc Tangl * Pharmacology Institute * Horseshoes of different nations and dry preparations of horse feet by Ármin Schwenszky * Silver medal of contributors for Károly Monostori * Animal sculptures by György Vastagh Disinfectable tools by Béla Plósz




István Rátz (1860–1917) doctor, veterinarian, professor of pathology, head of the pathology department (1890–1917) was an internationally acknowledged researcher both in pathology and in parasitology.

Aranyérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás, 1900Aranyérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás, 1900

The parasite preparates of István Rátz – (Distomum saginatum, Dipylidium Chyzeri, Taenia Echinococcus, etc.) and their patholgocial slides as well as the preparates of classical swine fever won gold medal.


Classical swine fever
Pestis suum (bouton)
Source: Department of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine



The Hungarian Royal State Institute of Bacteriology won gold medal as a modern research institute. It was presented on paintings and with its plan.

Aranyérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás, 1900Aranyérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás, 1900


Contemporary photo of the Hungarian Royal State Institute of Bacteriology
Source: Budapesti Magyar királyi Állatorvosi Főiskola. Budapest, Franklin, 1900.

The exceptionally beautiful photos of bacteria (anthrax, tetanus, typhus, classical swine fever, botryomyces, streptococcus) by Hugó Preisz persented at the exhibition were taken at the Institute of Bacteriology.


Bacterium photos by Hugó Preisz
Source: Preisz Hugó: Bakteriológia. Budapest, Országos Állatorvos Egyesület, 1899.


Leó Liebermann (1852–1926) doctor, chemist, professor of chemistry (1879–1902) organised and managed the Central Chemical Station and the National Institute for Chemistry. He was the first to use the electrometric method for determining pH.


István Bugarszky (1868–1941) doctor, chemist, expert in physical chemistry, professor and head of the chemistry department.


Leó Liebermann and István Bugarszky won gold medal with their equipment used for electochemical examinations, tools for fat measurement and their thermoregulator.

Aranyérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás, 1900 Aranyérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás, 1900




Béla Nádaskay (1848–1933) veterinarian and doctor, head of the anatomy department of the veterinary college, professor of anatomy, founder of the first Hungarian veterinary journal entitled Veterinarius and that of the museum of the Anatomy Department. He was also the founding member, secretary, chairman and later honorary member of the Hungarian National Veterinary Association. His excellent skills also helped him to make almost artistic preparations. He was the taxidermist of the skeleton of Kincsem as well that can be seen in the Museum of Hungarian Agriculture.

Kincsem, the magic mare (1874–1887) was the most successful Hungarian race horse proving to be unbeatable in 54 races. Her skeleton was conserved by Béla Nádaskay and until the 1950s it was on show in the Museum of the Anatomy Department. Today it is exhibited in the Museum of Hungarian Agriculture.


Aranyérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás, 1900Aranyérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás, 1900

Bronchia of a horse – won gold medal at the Paris World’s Fair in 1900
(Belongs to the Anatomy Department)

Corrosion preparation
This method of preparation was used to demonstrate hollow parts such as vessels, bronchia. The hollow parts are filled with a substance that hardens and persists after dissolving the tissues around it by digestion. The filling material, plaster kauchuk at that time, may be coloured.


Ferenc Tangl (1866–1917) doctor, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, professor of physiology and natural history, head of the physiology institute (1892-1903). He was also the director of the Hungarian Royal Experimental Station of Animal Physiology and Feeding.


Ferenc Tangl presented two sets of histological slides, a vacuum dryer box, a ventilator for which he was awarded a silver medal.

EzüstéremEzüstérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás 1900


Gyula Kóssa presented the impact of toxins by stuffing animals in the characteristic position or drawing these. Exhibits included calcification due to sugar toxicosis, dove poisoned by pilocarpin, frog poisoned by nicotine, kidney of rabbit poisoned by sublimat, etc.).

Gyula Kóssa managed to equip the Institute of Pharmacology with the best equipment by 1900. The excellent research institute was awarded a silver medal and a diploma.


EzüstéremEzüstérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás 1900


Ármin Schwenszky (1846-1927) veterinarian, teacher of horseshoeing (1882-1915). His professional experience and mastery was also manifested in his book written with Béla Nádaskay on horseshoeing. It had five editions.
Ármin Schwenszky, teacher of horseshoeing, was awarded a silver medal for his collection presenting the horseshoes of different nations and his dry preparations demonstrating different diseases and anomalies of the horse’s feet and hoof.

EzüstéremEzüstérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás 1900



Dry preparations of horse feet and their diseases
Source: Üllő, Large Animal Clinic

Horseshoes for different purposes and from different countries


Károly Monostori (1852–1917) veterinarian, professor of animal breeding (1884-1908) and obstetrics. He was an excellent author both of technical literature and of popular drama and poetry. For three decades he was very active in the profession as well as in the veterinary and animal breeder community.

Károly Monostori, head of the animal breeding department was awarded a silver medal. He exhibited complete series of teeth that help in the determination of domestic animal species, a collection of wool and hair samples and that of skulls.

EzüstéremEzüstérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás 1900



Skull of a sheep (racka)
Source: Department of Animal Breeding, Nutrition and Laboratory Animal Science

Development of the horse’s teeth from foal age to its twenties
Source: Department of Animal Breeding, Nutrition and Laboratory Animal Science

Wool samples
Source: Department of Animal Breeding, Nutrition and Laboratory Animal Science





György Vastagh Jr. (1868–1946) prepared 44 new pieces for the exposition. „Csikós” (Horseman) winning a Grand Prix was one of them. With these sculptures there were 100 works by him exhibited at the agricultural department where he won a gold medal, while in the art department he won a silver medal.

EzüstéremEzüstérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás 1900

Head of a racka ewe modelled by György Vastagh Jr.


Béla Plósz (1863–1945) veterinarian, professor of the Hungarian Royal Veterinary College, head of the clinic of surgery (1897-1921), lecturer of obstetrics and forensic veterinary medicine.
Béla Plósz was awarded a silver medal for a collection of modern, aseptic surgical instruments and his ophthalmic preparations (occlusio pupillae acquisita, ablatio retinae totalis, keratokele, ablatio membranae Descemetii, etc.).

EzüstéremEzüstérem - Párizsi Világkiállítás 1900

Autoclave for the disinfection of tools
(Donation of the Department of Surgery and Obstetrics)











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The work of Ferenc Hutyra and József Marek PDF Print

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Ferenc Hutÿra (1860–1934)


Hutyra Ferenc, rektor magnificus

Ferenc Hutÿra (1860–1934) doctor, veterinarian, rector of the Hungarian Royal Veterinary College, a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, internationally acknowledged authority in veterinary science. He introduced the approach of human medicine to veterinary science. He had great achievements in veterinary pathology, epidemiology, internal medicine, immunology, serology and virology as well as in forensic veterinary medicine. He was also an organiser of the veterinary system in Hungary with strategic thinking.



Though he was a professor of several subjects, he focused on veterinary epidemiology, the research of the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases of animals. His research into several diseases (such as tuberculosis, malleus, cattle plague, anthrax, erysipelas, tetanus) of great economic impact was outstanding. He has identified the pathogen of the brucellosis of swine. He proved that classical swine fever was a viral disease and made a vaccine against it. In order to enhance research of infectious diseases, he founded a laboratory of virology together with János Köves which worked under the name of Phylaxia Vaccine Works from 1912. He was the first to use tuberculin and mallein tests.

A sertésorbánc, a lépfene és a sertéspestis tüntetit szemléltető preparátumok (Forrás: Kórbonctani és igazságügyi állatorvostani tanszék)

He deserves the credit for drawing the level of veterinary training and research up to the international standard. His book in veterinary internal medicine written with Jozsef Marek, also published in German in 1905, was published in 11 languages and was considered a basic manual and textbook for decades.

He participated in the edition of several veterinary journals and publications (e.g. Állategészségügyi Évkönyv, Jahresbericht über das Veterinärwesen in Ungarn, Veterinarius, Állatorvosi Lapok) by means of which he influenced the Hungarian and international veterinary community greatly. He also had a column in the agricultural journal entitled Köztelek.

However, he was interested not only in the matters of the college, he also had a broad conception of the veterinary system, and utilizing his international authority and knowledge he contributed to the development of the veterinary service, to the elaboration of modern legal regulations, the effective fight against animal diseases with a great number of studies and proposals. He played a great role in the foundation of the National Veterinary Council in 1900.

He was managing the presentation of the Hungarian Royal Veterinary Academy and College as well as the Hungarian veterinary service at the so-called millenary exhibition of 1896 and the Paris World’s Fair in 1900. He was also the chief organiser of the 8th International Veterinary Congress, Budapest in 1905. All this contributed greatly to the international acknowledgement of Hungarian veterinary science.

It was Ferenc Hutÿra upon whose initiative the vaccination of animals against anthrax, also threatening humans, and erysipelas was started. His proposal was forwarded by director Ferenc Varga.

Erysipelas suis                        Anthrax carbunculus intestini (Equus)
Source: Department of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine

Classical swine fever (boutons) and the advertisment of the Hutÿra-Köves anti-swine fever serum
Source: Department of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine


Hutÿra Ferenc – Marek Jozsef: Spezielle Pathologie und Therapie der Haustiere.

Hutÿra Ferenc – Marek József: Spezielle Pathologie und Therapie der Haustiere. The first German edition of the world-famous book was published in two volumes in 1905. The first volume was written by Ferenc Hutÿra on infectious diseases, while the second volume by József Marek on the diseases of organs. 5 more editions were published in German language from the two mentioned authors (1909, 1910, 1913, 1920 and 1922). In the 7th edition published in 1938 Rezső Manninger joined the authors and these three authors wrote also the 8th and 9th German editions (1941, 1945). In the 10th and 11th (1954, 1959) János Mócsy was found among the authors as well.

The book was published in 5 English (1912, 1913, 1916, 1938, 1946), 3 Italian (1916, 1926, 1949), 3 Spanish (1920, 1968, 1973) editions (sometimes with more reprints), in 2 Russian (1910/1937, 1961/1963) editions (in more parts), in one Turkish (1937), Serbian (1949), Polish (1962), Chinese (1962/1965 – in more parts), Hungarian (textbook variant), Slovakian (1954), French (1959/1960) and Vietnamese (1962) edition, altogether in 11 foreign languages.

The authors always provided Hungarian veterinarians and university students with textbooks which were not the shortened versions of the „great German” book but differed in both structure and content. This book was continued by the recent successors.

Rezső Manninger and János Mócsy corresponded a lot with the German Fischer publishing house about terminating further editions because they supposed that science had specialized so much that one author cannot summarise the findings in one volume and cannot establish his own position on the basis of diverse opinions any more.

Source: Mészáros János: Hutÿra – Marek – Manninger – Mócsy: Spezielle Pathologie und Therapie der Haustiere c. könyv létrejötte, diadalútja és az újabb kiadások megszűnése (az első kiadás centenáriuma alkalmából). Magyar Állatorvosok Lapja, 2005. 127. 246-250.

Manninger Rezső

Rezső Manninger (1890-1970), veterinarian, awarded the Kossuth Prize twice, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, head of the department of infectious diseases (1927–1963), founder and the first director of the Central Veterinary Institute. He was an internationally acknowledged, outstanding scientist in the field of veterinary microbiology and infectious diseases.


Mócsy János

János Mócsy (1895–1976), veterinarian, awarded the Kossuth and the National Prize, head of the department and clinic of internal medicine (1935–1961), an inter-nationally acknowledged expert in veterinary science. He was the first in Hungary to research the problems of animal hygiene in large-scale animal husbandry.



Budapest Prize
Property of the Semmelweis Museum of the History of Medicine

The 8th World Veterinary Congress decided to offer its profit for the foundation of an international prize for the coming world veterinary congresses. Thus the Budapest Prize was founded. The 11th London congress considered publications from the last 25 years and awarded Ferenc Hutÿra and Jozsef Marek the prize in honour of their book in veterinary internal medicine translated to several languages.



József Marek (1868–1952)

Marek József

József Marek (1868-1952) "master of veterinarians worldwide", first leader of the independent department and clinic of internal medicine (1904-1935), awarded the Kossuth Prize, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

József Marek gave a broad interpretation of internal medicine. He was an open-minded, innovative scientist well-known for his striving for perfection and modesty who applied the achievements of human medicine widely in veterinary medicine. He laid particular emphasis on correct and accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and for this reason he developed several methods for clinical and laboratory diagnostics. His name is associated with the exploration of the physiological background, the development of diagnostic methods and the therapy of different digestive and respiratory diseases, neurological disorders, animal diseases due to metabolic disturbance. Examples are swine fever, Marek's disease, liver fluke disease, gid, rickets, etc. In all areas he introduced many innovations (electro-diagnostics, nasal and laryngeal mirror, endoscope, Marek’s tube, drugs), and he also worked on the development of traditional methods (e.g. percussion). He also excelled in the etiology of neurological and metabolic diseases, and dealt with some of the issues of animal psychology, too. He set a good example in leading his clinic, where he himself often carried out patients’ clinical and physical examination. His also demanded from his colleagues a thorough medical examination, an accurate anamnesis and case-history. Clinical experiences motivated him and were the basis of his scientific work. These were concluded in a number of internationally important books and publications.

Maggyar Örökség-díj

József Marek József, a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, honoured with Kossuth-prize was awarded postumus Magyar Örökség-díjat (Hunarian Heritage prize) in 2007 which was given to the dean of the Faculty of Veterianry Science

Marek, J.: Lehrbuch der Klinischen Diagnostik der inneren Krankheiten der Haustiere
A considerably augmented German version of "Klinikai diagnosztika” (Clinical diagnostics, 1902) which ran into several editions, including clinical examination methods, laboratory and diagnostic procedures in allergy, the examination of clinical immunological and bacteriological problems, X-ray and electro-diagnostic methods, etc.

Rhinolaryngoscope. An instrument, developed by József Marek, for the examination of the nose and the paranasal sinuses, the larynx and the trachea.

Fasciola hepatica mounted on a slide and abnormalities caused by liver flukes in the liver of a cattle (white, dilated parts of bile vessels)
Source: Department of Parasitology and Zoology

Distol. At the end of the 19th century liver fluke threatened 5-40% of cattle and sheep populations. Marek (with Pál Pataki) had improved its clinical diagnostics and developed Distol for its therapy. It was the only effective medicine for decades, which also proved to be a huge success for the manufacturing Chinoin Pharmaceutical Factory.

Electromyography device. It was used for testing the electric stimulability of the peripheral nervous system and the muscles. At the 1900 Paris World's Fair Marek presented the results of his electrodiagnostic examinations in horses, dogs, cattle and sheep with the help of figures showing their motor points.

Electric stimulability test for horses
Photo by György Klösz

Nasogastric tube (Marek’s tube). Marek made a distinction between intestinal tympany and acute gastric dilatation in colic horses, and on the basis of statistical examinations he proved that the drainage of gastric contents, which can easily be performed in a veterinary practice, significantly improves the survival rate. He was the first to describe the strangulation of the colon caused by the spleen-kidney membrane in horses.

Photo: Dr. Perényi János
Source: Üllő, Nagyállatklinika

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Inventors and innovators PDF Print

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Research and development in veterinary science can be basic research, while other fields are directly linked to practice. Some of the microbiologists, pathologists and parasitologists have discovered new species; there were those who have come to scientific achievements that had been ahead of their age, and then there were people who have improved the diagnostic procedures, the manual techniques and instruments of surgery or obstetrics.


Marek-Wellmann-Urbányi formula * The von Kóssa-reaction * Virus research of Jármai * Berrár's myopic spot * New parasite species * Hungarian casting method for horses * Azary's endotracheal tube and plessimeter * Obstetrical forceps modified by Plósz * Plósz's surgical knife * Hetze's finger knife * Emasculators * Hetzel's emasculator * Verbőczy's emasculator * Berrár's emasculator * Bölcsházy's extractor (obstetrical wire) * Karpfe's coelotom * Deseő's instrument * Berrár's mouth speculum * Lehoczki's electrical dental rasp * Magyary-Kossa's gas chamber patent


Marek-Wellmann-Urbányi formula

Many of the diseases of livestock are due to poor nutrition and husbandry. József Marek with Oszkár Wellmann, head of the department of animal breeding, and the chemist László Urbányi, head of the department of chemistry, did extensive research into rachitis and found that the lack of vitamin D is not its only cause. They have developed a formula for the determination of the so-called FAA (earth alcaly alcalicity) of feeds which was (CaO+MgO)-P2O5. Any abnormal shift in the acid-base balance of the diet results in metabolic disorders, e.g. abnormal bone development in young animals or rickets. Nutritional regimes based on the formula play an important role in the prevention and therapy of diseases.
Marek, Wellmann and Urbányi revealed already at the begininng of the 1930’s that in order to compensate the characteristically slight acidity of metabolism it is beneficial to introduce a slightly base diet. If the acid-balance of the diet is not correct several problems or diseases may follow such as thin and fragile egg shells, formation of urinary calculi, or deformity of bones. Their discovery was long forgotten and nutrition research focused on the „base diet” only several decades later.

Wellmann Oszkár

Oszkár Wellmann (1876-1943) veterinarian, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, head of the department of animal breeding from 1910 to 1943, rector of the Hungarian Royal Veterinary College (1931–1933).


László Urbányi (1902-1977) chemical engineer, doctor of agricultural science, head of the department of chemistry from 1943 to 1957.


Magyary-Kossa Gyula

Magyary-Kossa Gyula (1865-1944)was a doctor of medicine, professor of pharmacology and toxicology from 1896 to 1936. Beside his numerous important contributions and experiments in the field of pharmacology and toxicology, he was an outstanding figure of the history of Hungarian medicine. He was also teaching veterinary history from 1896 till 1905.



The von Kossa reaction

The reaction revealing calcium deposits was elaborated by Gyula (Magyary-)Kóssa in 1901 and served to show calcium deposits in different parts of the body. During the histochemical reaction, calcium phosphate or calcium carbonate accumulating in tissues reacts with the silver nitrate used as an indicator, thus silver phosphate and silver carbonate are created. Under light these compounds release pure silver which can be observed as black stain in slides. Gyula Magyary-Kossa presented his method first in volume 29. 1901 of Beiträge der Pathologischen Anatomie und allgemeinen Pathologie under the title „Ueber die im Organismus künstlich erzeugbaren Verkalkungen”.



The von Kossa-reaction under the microscope
Source: Istvan Kótai DVM


Virus research of Jármai

Jármai Károly

Károly Jármay (1887-1941) veterinarian, professor of pathology, head of the department of pathology (1919-1941), honorary lecturer of comparative pathology at the faculty of medicine at Pázmány Péter University. He became an acknowledged veterinary pathologist by the examination of transmissible viral tumors (fowl leukosis, cutaneous papillomatosis of cattle). He was a founding member of the Hungarian Society of Pathologists, and its president in 1939.

He was the first to verify the suitability of embryonic eggs for virus research. He predicted the importance of the electron microscope in virus research. His books entitled General pathology (1925) and Pathology of Domestic Animals (1936 and 1941) are the first illustrated works of veterinary pathology in Hungarian.

Enlarged hen spleens due to experimental leukosis infection (inoculation)
Source: Museum of the Department of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine


Cutaneous papillomatosis. Cattle.
Source: Museum of the Department of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine


Berrár’s myopic spot

Berrár Mihály

Mihály Berrár (1884–1929) veterinarian, head of the department of surgery and ophthalmology. The first Hungarian veterinary ophthalmologist; he developed numerous examination techniques and instruments. He also wrote the first complete textbook of veterinary surgery.

The examination technique, developed by Berrár for the easy and most practical diagnosis of myopy (short-sightedness) of considerable degree in horses, requires only one single ophthalmic mirror. The so-called myopy spot is the reflection of the opening in the ophthalmic mirror at the bottom of the eye as it is magnified by the reflective media of the organ. A clear image is created on the retina only if the mirror is in the focal point of the eye. The extent of short-sightedness may be calculated on the basis of the distance between the myopic spot and the focal point..

Source: Berrár M.: Állatorvosi sebészet. I. kötet. Az általános sebészet és a szemészet. Budapest : Centrum Kiadó Rt., Állatorvosi Főiskola „Lehel” Bajtársi Egyesülete, 1924. 320. p.

Laboratory of the department of parasitology


New parasite species

Rátz István István Rátz (1860-1917) doctor of medicine and veterinary medicine, professor of pathology, head of the department of pathology (1860-1917), the first veterinary parasitologist in Hungary.

Kotlán Sándor

Sándor Kotlán (1887-1967) veterinarian, professor, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences awarded the Kossuth Prize, acknowledged expert in parasitology, organizer and the first head of the independent department of parasitology.

Both István Rátz and Sándor Kotlán have described numerous new parasite species mainly in domestic animals, but also in wild fowls. Most of the parasites they have described still bear the scientific names they have given them.

Parazites described by István Rátz:
Echinochasmus perfoliatus Rátz
Opistorchis entzii Rátz
Pegosomum saginatum Rátz
Pegosomum spiniferum Rátz
Dipylidium sexcoronalum Rátz
Dipylidium örleyi Rátz

Monocellulars and helminths described by Sándor Kotlán:
Cochlosoma anatis Kotlán
Protrichomonas anatis Kotlán
Eimeria parva Kotlán, Mócsy és Vajda
Eimeria anseris Kotlán
Eimeria parvula Kotlán
Eimeria nocens Kotlán
Eimeria piriformis Kotlán és Pospesch
Petasiger megacanthum Kotlán
Echinochasmus amphibolus Kotlán
Poteriostomum rátzii Kotlán
Cylicostomum cymatostomum Kotlán
Cylicostomum acuticaudatum Kotlán
Cylicostomum calicatiforme Kotlán
Cylicostomum ornatum Kotlán
Cylicostomum sagittatum Kotlán
Cylicostomum elongatum macrobursatum Kotlán
Cylicostomum hybridum Kotlán
Cylicostomum leptostomum Kotlán
Cylicostomum ihlei Kotlán
Cylicostomum prionodes Kotlán
Capillaria perforans Kotlán és Orosz
Capillaria phasianina Kotlán
Cochlosoma anatis Kotlán

Forrás: Dr. Majoros Gábor
Parazitológiai és Állattani Tanszék


Poteriostomum rátzii Kotlán
Source: Gábor Majoros DVM
Department of Parasitology and Zoology


Capillaria perforans with autographic lable by Sándor Kotlán
Source: Department of Parasitology and Zoology



Cochlosoma anatis Kotlán
Source: Gábor Majoros DVM
Department of Parasitology and Zoology


An speciment of Dipylidium oerleyi Rátz described in cats by István Rátz
Source: Gábor Majoros DVM
Department of Parasitology and Zoology


Hungarian casting method for horses

It is a simple method to lay down a horse for some purpose like an operation. A long and thick rope is required. A non-sliding loop is prepared to the middle of the rope and is placed over the head to the neck. The two ends of the rope are passed between the front legs backwards and are bent round the fatlocks just over the hooves of the hind legs, returned through the loop over the neck. If the two ends of the rope are pulled forcefully at the same time, the horse goes into sitting position and may easily be turned over on either side. Sometimes we fail to lay the horse down to the required place, and the rope may also rub the skin over the hooves.


Tamas L. – Fellner F.: Állatorvosi sebészeti műtéttan. 2. átdolg. Bőv. Kiad. Budapest, Mezőgazdasági K., 1969. 29-30. p.


Azary’s endotracheal tube

Azary Ákos

Ákos Azary (1850-1888) doctor of medicine and veterinary medicine, surgeon, professor, head of the department of internal medicine from 1882-1888, professor of infectious diseases and veterinary administration. A new era began by his short-time work in the field of internal medicine education.

The endotracheal tube is inserted into an incision on the trachea. The patient can breathe with its help.
„The advantage of Azary's cannula is that the tube is fixed just like Hauptner’s. The disadvantage of these tubes is that they may cause post tracheal stenosis.”


Berrár Mihály: Állatorvosi sebészet. II. kötet. Budapest, Centrum K. Rt. 1924. 141. oldal

Azary’s plessimeter

A plessimeter or percussion plate and hammer is used for percussion. In large animals, the plessimeter is pressed into the intercostal space and conclusions concerning pathological changes in the lungs can be drawn from the sound generated by the percussion strokes of the hammer.
Ákos Azary was an expert in diagnostics and percussion as well, and has also developed its instrument.



Obstetrical forceps modified by Plósz

The forceps are used for extracting the foetus which got stuck in the birth canal. It is a convenient tool which is easy to use. It may be inserted deeply and gives a firm hold on the foetus.



Plósz’s surgical knife (scalpel)

For incisions knife and scissors are used in the soft tissues to minimize tissue destruction. Plósz's is one of the most frequently used scalpels.



Hetzel’s finger knife (obstetrics)

Hetzel Henrik

Henrik Hetzel (1875-1949) veterinarian, organizer and head of the department of obstetrics (1929–1946), head of the polyclinic (1936–1945). Professor of obstetrics, and researcher of the pathology and therapy of infertility.

Finger knives serve the purposes of fetotomy. „The instrument is a 7 cm long, bending knife with two rings on its back to hold the index finger that can be moved forward and backward, and with a ring at its end for the thumb. I also put a button above the blade to which the middle finger can be pressed. A thread may be fixed into the small hole on the blade thus we can help in making the incision with our hand outside the sex organs.”

Hetzel Henrik: Állatorvosi szülészet. Gödöllő, a szerző kiadása, 1925. 271-272. p.




The emasculator is an instrument resembling scissors used for the castration of male animals which simultaneously crushes and cuts the spermatic cord thus preventing hemorrhaging.

Hetzel’s emasculator
It is an emasculator for small animals, a kind of the emasculator by Berrar with longer handle. The scissors-like emasculator is the best for crushing the ovaries as well.lezúzására is.


Verbőczy's emasculator
It also has blades which close next to each other. „Verbőczy broadened the crushing surface with 2-3 centimeters… We are using the Verbőczy’s emasculator at the college’s clinic and crushing is really satisfactory as we have not experienced postoperative hemorrhaging at all.”
Plósz Béla: Sebészeti műtéttan. Budapest, Pátria, 1908. 324. p.

Berrár’s emasculator
The distance between the crushing and the cutting edges is optimal. There is a small, a medium and a large version. It is also suitable to crush the ovaries of older sows.

Castration of a horse with emasculator
Phtot: János Perényi DVM


Bölcsházy’s extractor (obstetrical wire)


Kálmán Bölcsházy (1901–1978) veterinarian, professor of the Department and Clinic of Obstetrics (1948-1966), the first researcher of the problems in obstetrics and reproductive biology occurring in large scale farms. He constructed a number of obstetrical instruments.


The wire served the pulling out of the foetuses of large animals which got stuck in the birth canal. The set consists of three wires two of which should be fixed on the limbs, and one on the head. The wire is stainless of high endurance, flexible but it does not wrinkle. The wire is covered by steel spirals to prevent lesions. The loop should be pulled through a metal stirrup which is broad enough and makes the regulation of tightness possible. It is easy to put it around the fetus and makes high energy traction possible.

Forrás: Cseh Sándor: Állatorvosi szülészeti műtéttan. Budapest, Mezőgazdasági K., 1967. 155. p.


Karpfer’s coelotom

This knife used for opening large animals’ abdominal cavity for the purposes of post-mortem examination was introduced by Konrád Karpfer veterinarian in 1922. With its rounded end it prevents the opening of bowels.



Deseő’s instrument

Deseő Dezső_

Dezső Deseő (1893–1967), doctor of medicine, professor of physiology. Dean of the Faculty of Agricultural and Veterinary Science at the Hungarian Royal Palatine Joseph University of Technology and Economics


Deseő's mass transfusion instrument (1953) can be applied directly for blood transfusion from animal to animal. The small syringe-mounted unit is equipped with a rubber valve and is connected to the vein needles with two 50-inch rubber tubes. Air must be removed from the instrument before blood transfusion; blood can be sucked out from one tube and pressed immediately to the other.

_ _
Source: Tamas L. – Fellner F.: Állatorvosi sebészeti műtéttan. 2. átdolg. Bőv. Kiad. Budapest, Mezőgazdasági K., 1969. 118-119. p.


Berrár’s mouth speculum

For rasping horses’ teeth it is necessary to keep the mouth open, and the mouth speculum serves this purpose. The advantage of Berrár’s mouth speculum is that it can be fixed to the head so it does not move.


Lehoczki’s electric dental rasp

Dental rasps are used to remove the sharp ridges and points formed on horses’ teeth. Electric instruments are more patient-friendly, precise and convenient for dental rasping. In Lehoczki’s instrument the engine is in the handle.


Application of Berrár’s mouth speculum during dental rasping
Photo: Dr. Perényi János


Gyula Magyary-Kossa’s gas chamber patent

The patent is for getting rid of insect pests of horses, other animals, clothes or objects. The horse was introduced into a brick-built chamber plastered inside and outside as well. Its head was pulled through to the outside across a tight-fitting hood on the neck, and the doors were closed. The burning unit was placed inside the house, in which sticks of sulphur were burnt. Sulfur dioxide, arising from these, killed skin mites. This treatment took one or one and a half hours. Sulfur dioxide concentration were controlled by putting a candle in the inner window-ledge. The extinction of the flame indicated oxygen depletion, so knowing the amount of sulfur burnt, sulfur dioxide concentrations could be calculated.

Source: István Kótai DVM, Kamarai Állatorvos

Modell of the gas chamber


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Giants of microbiology and the Hungarian Royal State Institute of Bacteriology PDF Print

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In the second part of the 19th century medicine had gone through a revolutionary transformation one reason to which was the discovery of the real nature and pathogens of infectious diseases: bacteria and viruses. Though the Dutch Antoni van Leeuwenhoek had observed bacteria two hundred years before in his microscope, it was much later that this knowledge gained practical significance in medicine with the work of Pasteur and Koch. The existence of viruses – pathogens smaller than bacteria – was only revealed in experiments carried out at the end of the 19th century.

Devastating animal diseases caused and still cause severe economic losses. It is enough to think of the consequences of the foot and mouth disease epidemic in England a few years ago. Due to the joint efforts of science and veterinary control – the veterinary police system as it was called in the 19th century – Hungary was able to fight epidemics usually approaching our country from the east due to climate and habits of animal husbandry there. Our first veterinary regulations served the fighting of cattle plague, and in fact Hungary became free of this disease by 1881. Law VII. of 1888 was a comprehensive regulation of the veterinary sector containing strict regulations regarding border control, animal transport and husbandry, slaughter, the reporting of animal diseases, the localisation of disease outbreaks, and described the tasks of veterinarians in great detail. The examination and testing of veterinary medications and vaccines was also important of which samples were sent to the Hungarian Royal State Institute of Bacteriology.
The veterinary school had always been closely related to practice, and had been submitting its scientific proposals regarding hot issues such as the most up-to-date methods of disinfection for ship and wagons involved in animal transport, or vaccination against anthrax. The veterinary school has also been involved in the management of official examinations compulsory for state veterinarians. The Institute of Bacteriology was also founded here in 1891. It was directed by Hugo Preisz, the excellent bacteriologist, who identified the pathogen of the caseous lymphadenitis of sheep and goat in the same year, which turned out to be the bacterium called today Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.
The institute had the following tasks:

  1. The scientific study of infectious diseases.
  2. The application of the achievements of bacteriology in order to prevent and eradicate infectious diseases.
  3. To provide opportunity for veterinary or human doctors or other interested parties to study and research bacteriology.
  4. To give expert opinion in bacteriological matters for authorities, offices or private persons.

In 1906 Aladár Aujeszky took over the management of the institute which provided national services from 1893 on: testing and distribution of diagnostic materials and vaccines, rabies tests, examination of water, milk, honey, hay, sputum, etc. Aujeszky discovered the virus and disease later named after him already in 1902 in cattle, the symptoms of which are similar to that of rabies.
The Institute moved to a new, modern, well-equipped building in 1900 at the corner of Hungária circular road and the Stefánia road which was supplemented by stables for sick and laboratory animals. The building was presented at the World’s Fair in Paris, 1900 where the Institute won Gold Medal for its activity. The building houses the Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Few years after cattle plague another imported disease, classical swine fever challenged the newly formed veterinary system. Jozsef Marek was asked to examine the problem. He summarized his experiences gained at the royal Veterinary Office of Kőbánya in a significant study on the pathology of the disease. Some time later in 1907, already as head of the department of internal medicine of the Veterinary College, he described the disease of poultry named after him. After neuropathological and transocculation experiments it turned out that this disease is a malignant disease of herpes viral origin accompanied by tumour formation which may be prevented efficiently by vaccination. The discovery was important not only from the economic point of view but also because this was the first time when a neoplasmic disease could be prevented by vaccination. Our microbiologists had achieved further significant results using the modern equipment of the Institute of Bacteriology.
In 1914 János Köves (Department of Epidemiology) managed to describe a symptom indicative of other diseases. Then in the 1960s the achievement of the early 20th century was repeated when in one decade a new strain of the Aujeszky-virus was described, called Bartha strain, and when there was a breakthrough in the research of goose influenza with the discovery of Derzsy’s disease.

Bakteriológiai Intézet - Járványtani és Mikrobiológiai Tanszék

The Hungarian Royal State Institute of Bacteriology, today the Department of Epidemiology and Microbiology

Pathogens and diseases named after Hungarian veterinary microbiologists

Preisz-Nocard baktérium * Aujeszky-betegség * Marek-betegség * Köves-betegség * Derzsy-betegség * Bartha-féle törzs, Móvár-vírus


Preisz-Nocard-bacterium, disease

Other names: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Corynebacterium ovis
Described by:
Hugo Preisz (1860-1940) doctor, veterinarian, bacteriologist, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Founder of modern bacteriological research in Hungary, head of the Bacteriology Institute of the Hungarian Royal Veterinary College.


Preisz Hugó

Description: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes caseous lymphadenitis and the ulcerative inflammation of lymph vessels of horses. The bacterium excretes a toxin harmful for red blood cells and the endothelial cells of vessels.
Species: sheep, goat, occasionally cattle, horse
Route of infection:
Through skin lesions, the mucosal membrane of the mouth or throat or by inhalation. It does not threaten humans.
Signs (pathology):
Clinical signs appear in mature animals: enlargement of lymph nodes, purulent abscesses. Lack of appetite, wasting may be followed by death.
Separation and slaughter of sick animals, the treatment of those not showing clinical signs with antibiotics may prevent further cases, however, the infection may persist. Vaccination is also possible.
Economic significance:
20-40% of infected goat herds may get sick. The disease may also become chronic without visible signs, but with a dramatic decrease of production.
Frequent in the tropics, sporadic in the countries of the temperate zone.


Preisz Hugó mikroszkópos képe a pseudotuberculosis baktériumról

Micrscopic view of the Preisz-Nocard bacterium
Source: Preisz Hugó: Bakteriológia. Budapest, Országos Állatorvos Egyesület, 1899

Sajtos nyirokcsomó-gyulladás - Fotó: Dr. Hajtós István

Preisz-Nocard disease in sheep

Fotó: Dr. Hajtós István

Fotó: Dr. Hajtós István

Smears of the Preisz-Nocard bacterium

Fotó: Dr. Hajtós István

Culture of the Preisz-Nocard bacterium
Photo: Dr. Hajtós István


Aujeszky's disease

Other names: pseudolyssa, pseudorabies, Pseudowut
Described by
Aladár Aujeszky (1869-1933), doctor, veterinarian, professor of bacteriology and bacteriological diagnosis, head of the Institute of Bacteriology of the Hungarian Royal Veterinary College (1907-1933). He was the first to describe ''pseudolyssa'' in 1902, and distinguish it from rabies.


Aujeszky Aladár

Description: Aujeszky’s disease is caused by a herpesvirus and results in neurological symptoms and death in piglets and other species, while adult pigs have only mild respiratory symptoms or have no symptoms at all.
Species: Pig, dog, cat, cattle, sheep, goat, mink
Route of infection: Pigs are the virus hosts, all other species are infected by pigs through direct or indirect contact (e.g. by eating infected meat). Pigs can be infected by inhalation or orally. It does not threaten humans.
Signs (pathology): Piglets showing neurological symptoms die in large numbers, while adult pigs show only mild respiratory symptoms or fever. It can be accompanied with fever, salivation, lack of appetite, convulsions, paralysis. In other species itching and myeloencephalitis occur. Aujeszky’s disease is difficult to be distinguished from rabies at its early stage, so animals showing similar symptoms should be treated with caution.


Numerous inflammatory-necrotic foci are present in the liver, spleen and lungs of a newborn piglet due to Aujeszky’s disease
Source: Vetési Ferenc – Dobos-Kovács Mihály: Állatorvosi patológiai képes album = Colour atlas of veterinary pathology. Budapest : VET-Image Kft., 2006. 609. kép




Other names: Neurolymphomatosis
Described by József Marek (1868–1952), veterinarian, Doctor of Philosophy, university professor, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences awarded the Kossuth Prize, founder and head of the department and clinic of internal medicine at the Hungarian royal Veterinary College.

Marek József

Description: In flocks of hens a disease of virus origin with acute hyperplasia, oncogenesis and in its chronic form with the inflammation of peripheral nerves.
Species: Hen, rarely other bird species
How infection spreads: It has been reported in almost all flocks kept under traditional husbandry conditions. The infected birds, objects and the air also spread the virus. It does not threaten humans.
Syndromes: In acute Marek’s disease birds show depression, lack of appetite, and they die in some days or weeks. The so-called classical Marek’s disease is associated with incoordination, an asymmetric paralysis of one or both legs or wings, wing dropping and the lowering of the head and neck are common.
Prevention: The fate of the diseased flocks cannot be controlled. Prevention from Marek’s disease is possible by vaccination, sterilization and fumigation, by ensuring maximum hygiene in hatcheries and in stablings, and air filtration.
Economic significance: Besides its economic significance it improved knowledge on malignant tumours of virus origin.
Spreading: Occurs worldwide.


Hen suffering from Marek’s disease
Source: Vetési Ferenc – Mészáros M. János:
Háziállatok diagnosztikai boncolása. Budapest, Mezőgazda K., 1993.


Hen’s head died of Marek’s disease
Source: Department of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine


Enlargement of nerves in a hen suffering from Marek’s disease
Source: Vetési Ferenc – Mészáros M. János:
Háziállatok diagnosztikai boncolása. Budapest, Mezőgazda K., 1993.



Köves's disease
Other name: Emphysematous gastritis
Described by János Köves (1882–1977) professor of the Hungarian Royal Veterinary College, head of the polyclinic, later the epidemiological laboratory in Kőbánya, the founder of the mass production of veterinary vaccines, organizer of the Phylaxia Serum Works Co., deputy director of the Veterinary Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, an expert in swine health.

Köves János

Description: Köves-disease is a so-called „indicator disease” – it does not occur in itself, i. e. if the veterinarian finds it, he has to think of what other disease could have attacked the mucosal membrane of the stomach. It may be swine fever, the infectious gastroenteritis of piglets, ulcers or mycotoxin intoxication. The bacterium Clostridium septicum causing oedema permeates the bleeding mucosa of the stomach.
Route of infection:
Through the lesions of the mucosa of the stomach. It does not threaten humans.
Signs (pathology):
The disease can be identified postmortem. The wall of the stomach is thickened, its touch is rubberlike, there are sero-haemorrhagical infiltrations and gas bubbles in and fibrin cover on it.
Prevention: Prevention of other swine diseases.
Economic significance:
Related diseases may cause serious losses therefore the fight against them has been going on for more than a hundred years.


Thickened stomach wall, sero-haemorrhagical infiltrations, gas bubbles caused by Clostridium septicum (swine)
Forrás: Vetési – Dobos-Kovács: Állatorvosi patológiai képes album: Emlős patológia. 2006. 330. ábra


Derzsy's disease
Other names: Goose influenza, goose viral hepatitis
Described by
Domokos Derzsy (1914–1975), veterinarian, honorary professor, director of the Veterinary Medical Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1967-1975). A disease caused by goose parvovirus was named in his honour Derzsy’s disease.

Description:    A diseases caused by parvovirus which usually results in death in goslings and young Barbary ducks.
Species:    Goslings, young Barbary ducks (clinical symptoms usually do not occur in older animals)
Route of infection:    It may get into the egg with feces. It does not threaten humans.
Signs (pathology):    Damage to the liver and the heart muscle, hydroperitoneum.
Prevention:    The fate of the diseased population cannot be controlled by therapy. Goslings may be protected by the vaccination of geese, the infection of goslings in large numbers must be prevented by sterilization, by ensuring maximum hygiene, and by providing proper husbandry conditions.
Economic significance:    Occurs everywhere where geese are kept in large numbers. Even 30-60% of 1-4 week-old, not protected animals may die. In protected animals losses are much smaller, they do not exceed 3-5%.


Gosling suffering from Derzsy’s disease
Source: Department of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine


Pathologic image of Derzsy's disease
Source: Department of Pathology and Forensic Veterinary Medicine



Bartha's strain (a type of Aujeszky's virus)
Other name: K/61
Described by
Adorján Bartha (1923–1996) veterinarian, professor at the Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the University of Veterinary Science, member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, honorary professor, head of the Veterinary Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1990-1994). He was an internationally acknowledged virologist.

Bartha Adorján

In 1961 Adorján Bartha isolated the K/61 virus strain with low virulence. Some gene sections are missing from its DNA, thus this virus strain has lost its pathogenic ability. Bartha’s K/61 vaccine is used for preventing Aujeszky’s disease.

Name: MOVAR virus
Other name: Bovid herpesvirus 4
Description: Adorján Bartha isolated herpesviruses of slow reproductivity causing subclinical infection (without apparent signs) named MOVAR after Mosonmagyaróvár.
Species: Cattle

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World renowned achievements of Hungarian veterinary science PDF Print

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Giants of microbiology and the Hungarian Royal State Institute of Bacteriology
Inventors and innovators
The work of Ferenc Hutÿra and József Marek
On the international stage (World Fair of Paris, 1900)
Masters and students

In Hungary the first and ever since the only veterinary training institution was founded in 1787 which may also be considered as the beginning of veterinary science. Alexander Tolnay, founder of the veterinary school, returned to Hungary from Vienna with the works of his professor Wolstein in his package and laid the foundations of Hungarian veterinary terminology by translating these books.

The training of veterinarians developed in close connection with animal health in Hungary. Vilmos Zlamál, professor of the veterinary department and clinic, had become the first chief veterinarian („regni veterinarius” in 1838) and his followers also played an important role in the scientific support of veterinary service, in the elimination of devastating epidemics, in the organization of an effective veterinary and food control service, and in the elaboration of its legal background.

Fighting devastating animal diseases and epidemics had an outstanding economic significance already in the 19th century, and freedom of the diseases is an important competitive edge in the international market. The series of discoveries in microbiology marked a new era in the development of medicine which had always inspired veterinarians. Difficulties arising and the scientific solutions which came into being to overcome these have spurred the dedicated professors of the Hungarian Royal Veterinary School, Academy and later College with outstanding talents for fantastic achievements which took Hungarian veterinary science and animal health to the forefront of the world. There were two decisive personalities of the period, Ferenc Hutÿra, the long-sited organiser, and Jozsef Marek, the inventive scholar.

The most concentrated presentation of Hungarian veterinary science took place at the turn of the 19-20th centuries at exhibitions and congresses. The discoveries and inventions including diseases, bacteria, viruses, procedures, medicines, and tools, are still named after the representatives of this period all over the world, and made Hungarian veterinary science well-known. There is also an important circulation of knowledge that has always characterized our veterinary school. Our professors have been visiting foreign institutions and still do so to incorporate best practices into training, or to participate in international research projects. Our students also wonder the world or come from different countries and return there taking the experience and knowledge of 225 years with them.

Let's get acquainted with the world renown achievements of Hungarian veterinary science in more detail!

Kiállításunkkal az Állatorvosok Évét ünnepeljük Kiállításunkkal a magyar állatorvosképzés 225. évfordulóját köszöntjük!


Tamás Bakonyi DVM, PhD
Alajos Ballásch DVM
Sándor Fekete DVM, PhD
László Fodor DVM, PhD
István Hullár DVM, PhD
Simon Izing DVM
Dávid Juhász
István Kótai DVM
Gábor Majoros DVM
Míra Mándoki DVM
Barbara Négyesi
János Perényi DVM
Judit Perényi Dobóvári
László Siba
Péter Sótonyi DVM, PhD, Dr. hc.
László Szabára
Ottó Szenci
Magdolna Szlatényi
Ferenc Vetési DVM, PhD
Károly Vörös DVM, PhD

Designed by:

Eva Orbán

2011. október 16.

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